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Bir Etno-Dini İnanış Olarak İran’daki Yarsan İnancı: Tarihi, Esasları ve Bugünkü Durumu

Year 2017, Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 435 - 454, 30.12.2017
https://doi.org/10.18403/emakalat.339754

Abstract




















İran’da kökleri
yüzlerce yıl öncesine dayanan dini gruplardan birisi olan Yarsan inanışı
günümüzde Tahran rejiminin uyguladığı insan hakları ihlalleri nedeniyle hem
bölgesel hem de uluslararası araştırmacıların dikkatini çekmektedir. 12 İmam
Şiiliğini benimseyen İran yönetiminin kendilerine yönelik asimilasyon
politikası izlediğini iddia eden Yarsan inananları, Tahran rejimine karşı zaman
zaman protesto gösterileri düzenlemektedir. Son yıllarda binlerce üyesi
özellikle Avrupa ülkelerine iltica eden Yarsan inanışıyla ilgili literatürde
kısıtlı bir yazın bulunmaktadır. Farklı din ve mezheplerin bir karışımı olarak
tanımlanabilecek bu inanış, özellikle Ortadoğu’da dini ve mezhepsel yapılar
çalışan bilim insanlarınca ilginç bir çalışma konusu teşkil edebilecektir.
Buradan hareketle bu çalışmada Yarsan inancının tarihsel arka planı ve temel
esasları incelenmiş, daha sonra da günümüzde İran siyasal ve dini yapısında
Yarsan inanışıyla ilgili hangi meselelerin gündeme geldiği ele alınmıştır.
Çalışmanın başlıca amacı hem Yarsan inancı hem de bu inanışa benzer yerel dini
yapıların sosyolojine dair araştırmacıların dikkatini çekmektir.

References

  • “Ahl-e Haqq”, Encyclopedia Iranica, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/, 13 Haziran 2017.
  • Algar, Hamid. “Ehl-i Hak” Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi, 10 (İstanbul: TDV Yay., 1994).
  • Babacan, İsrafil. “İran Türkleri Arasında Yaygın Bir İnanç: Ehl-i Hak ve Kutsal Kitapları Bayrak Kuşçuoğlu’nun Kelamları”, Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaşı Veli Araştırma Dergisi, 2005, Sayı: 33.
  • Bruinessen, Martin Van. “Ahl-i Haqq”, Encyclopaedia of Islam (Third Edition) (Leiden: Brill, 2009).
  • “Death Row Inmate Abruptly Transferred, Imminent Execution Feared”, Center for Human Rights in Iran, 28 Haziran 2012.
  • Deniz, Hüseyin. “Kakailik ve Alevilik”, Dersim Araştırmaları Merkezi, http://www.dersimarastirmalarimerkezi.com/kakailik, 12 Haziran 2017.
  • Foltz, Richard. Religions of Iran: From Prehistory to the Present (London: Oneworld Publications, 2013).
  • “Forced Moustache Shaving in Iranian Prison Sparks Yarsan Protests”, Rudaw, 20 Haziran 2013.
  • Gülçiçek, Ali Duran. Alevilik (Bektaşilik, Kızılbaşlık) ve Onlara Yakın İnançlar (Istanbul: Ethnographia Anatolica Yay., 2004).
  • “Iran: Freedom of Religion; Treatment of Religious and Ethnic Minorities”, Austrian Red Cross, Austrian Center for Country of Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation, September 2015.
  • “Iran- Human rights: Execution and mistreatment of religious minorities in Iran”, Iran Probe, 28 Ocak 2016.
  • “Iranian Kurdistan: Kakai Forced To Flee as Result of Discrimination”, Unrepresented Nations & People’s Organization, 15 September 2017.
  • “IRAN: Political prisoner hanged on verge of Rouhani’s visit to Europe”, National Council of Resistance of Iran, 26 Ocak 2016.
  • “Iran: Practices, leadership and special religious celebrations of the Ahl-e Haq faith; whether members of the community are treated differently by Islamic officials than other Kurdish individuals”, Immigration and Refugee Board in Canada, 1 October 1998, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6aab324.html.
  • “IRAN: The Yaresan”, Ministry of Immigration and Integration: The Danish Immigration Center, https://www.nyidanmark.dk, 6 Nisan 2017.
  • “Iran: 80 Yarsan Kurds arrested during rights protest”, National Council of Resistance of Iran, 21 Ekim 2013.
  • Izady, Mehrdad R. The Kurds: A Concise History (London: Taylor & Francis, 1992), s. 147.
  • “Kurdish diaspora protest pressures against Iran’s Yarsan worldwide”, EKurd Daily, 15 Mart 2016.
  • “Mehdi Rahmani the Yarsan follower arrested”, Human Rights Activists News Agency, 14 Haziran 2013.
  • Minahan, James B. Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World (California: Greenwood, 2016).
  • Mir-Hosseini, Ziba. “Redefining the Truth: Ahl-i Haqq and the Islamic Republic of Iran”, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 1994, Vol. 21, No. 2.
  • “Most Yarsani Religious Minority Candidates Disqualified From Iran’s 2017 Councils Elections”, Center for Human Rights in Iran, https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2017/05/, 13 Haziran 2017.
  • “Once again self-immolation of two Yarasani followers in Kermanshah”, Yarsan Democratic Organization, 16 Nisan 2017.
  • “Regime Blocks Reconstruction of Ahl-e Haqq’s Shrine”, Kurdistan Press Agency, 12 Aralık 2011.
  • “Religious Minority in Iran Asks Khamenei for Constitutional Protection”, Center for Human Rights in Iran, 17 Haziran 2016.
  • Sharifi, Amir. “Iran’s War Against its Religious Minorities”, Rudaw, 30 Haziran 2013.
  • “Some of Yarsan followers victims due to discriminatory system of the Islamic regime of Iran”, Yarsan Democratic Organization, 17 Nisan 2017.
  • Taşkıran, Mehmet Sait. “İran: Gorani Kürtleri, Pirler’in Düğünü”, Atlas, Mart 2013, Sayı: 240, http://www.atlasdergisi.com/kesfet/kultur/pirlerin-dugunu.html, 12 Haziran 2017.
  • “Two Iranian Yarsanis Set Themselves on Fire in Protest of Discrimination”, BasNews, 17 Nisan 2017.
  • “UN General Assembly: Situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran”, United Nations, 27 Ağustos 2014.
  • “Yok edilmek istenen inanç ve kültür: Ehl-i Hak”, Fenomen: Felsefe Dünyası, http://www.fenomen.org/dinler-mezhepler/, 20 Eylül 2017.
  • “6 Yarsan followers arrested in Hamedan”, Human Rights Activists News Agency, 4 Ağustos 2014.

Iran's "Yarsan" As an Ethno-Religious Belief: History, Principles and Status

Year 2017, Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 435 - 454, 30.12.2017
https://doi.org/10.18403/emakalat.339754

Abstract




















As one of the most
indigenous religious groups in Iran that dates back to hundreds years ago, the
Yarsan belief, attracts attention from both regional and international
researchers due to the human rights violations imposed by the Tehran regime
today. Yarsan believers claim that the Iranian government has been following assimilation
policy towards them. Therefore in recent years the Yarsan believers organize protests
against the Tehran regime. Furthermore, thousads of Yarsan believers have
emigrated to Western Europe to seek refugee status. Despite the attention of
human rights activists and civil society organizations, the Yarsan belief lack
scholarly work on them. This belief, which can be defined as a mixture of
different religions and sects, can be an interesting subject of study,
especially for scholars focusing on religious and sectarian groups in the
Middle East. Having this background in mind, this study aims to give a brief
account about the Yarsan belief and its relation with the Iranian government.
The main aim of this work is to attract the attention of scholars to conduct
more research on both Yasan belief and other religios minorities in the Middle
East.

References

  • “Ahl-e Haqq”, Encyclopedia Iranica, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/, 13 Haziran 2017.
  • Algar, Hamid. “Ehl-i Hak” Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi, 10 (İstanbul: TDV Yay., 1994).
  • Babacan, İsrafil. “İran Türkleri Arasında Yaygın Bir İnanç: Ehl-i Hak ve Kutsal Kitapları Bayrak Kuşçuoğlu’nun Kelamları”, Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaşı Veli Araştırma Dergisi, 2005, Sayı: 33.
  • Bruinessen, Martin Van. “Ahl-i Haqq”, Encyclopaedia of Islam (Third Edition) (Leiden: Brill, 2009).
  • “Death Row Inmate Abruptly Transferred, Imminent Execution Feared”, Center for Human Rights in Iran, 28 Haziran 2012.
  • Deniz, Hüseyin. “Kakailik ve Alevilik”, Dersim Araştırmaları Merkezi, http://www.dersimarastirmalarimerkezi.com/kakailik, 12 Haziran 2017.
  • Foltz, Richard. Religions of Iran: From Prehistory to the Present (London: Oneworld Publications, 2013).
  • “Forced Moustache Shaving in Iranian Prison Sparks Yarsan Protests”, Rudaw, 20 Haziran 2013.
  • Gülçiçek, Ali Duran. Alevilik (Bektaşilik, Kızılbaşlık) ve Onlara Yakın İnançlar (Istanbul: Ethnographia Anatolica Yay., 2004).
  • “Iran: Freedom of Religion; Treatment of Religious and Ethnic Minorities”, Austrian Red Cross, Austrian Center for Country of Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation, September 2015.
  • “Iran- Human rights: Execution and mistreatment of religious minorities in Iran”, Iran Probe, 28 Ocak 2016.
  • “Iranian Kurdistan: Kakai Forced To Flee as Result of Discrimination”, Unrepresented Nations & People’s Organization, 15 September 2017.
  • “IRAN: Political prisoner hanged on verge of Rouhani’s visit to Europe”, National Council of Resistance of Iran, 26 Ocak 2016.
  • “Iran: Practices, leadership and special religious celebrations of the Ahl-e Haq faith; whether members of the community are treated differently by Islamic officials than other Kurdish individuals”, Immigration and Refugee Board in Canada, 1 October 1998, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6aab324.html.
  • “IRAN: The Yaresan”, Ministry of Immigration and Integration: The Danish Immigration Center, https://www.nyidanmark.dk, 6 Nisan 2017.
  • “Iran: 80 Yarsan Kurds arrested during rights protest”, National Council of Resistance of Iran, 21 Ekim 2013.
  • Izady, Mehrdad R. The Kurds: A Concise History (London: Taylor & Francis, 1992), s. 147.
  • “Kurdish diaspora protest pressures against Iran’s Yarsan worldwide”, EKurd Daily, 15 Mart 2016.
  • “Mehdi Rahmani the Yarsan follower arrested”, Human Rights Activists News Agency, 14 Haziran 2013.
  • Minahan, James B. Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World (California: Greenwood, 2016).
  • Mir-Hosseini, Ziba. “Redefining the Truth: Ahl-i Haqq and the Islamic Republic of Iran”, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 1994, Vol. 21, No. 2.
  • “Most Yarsani Religious Minority Candidates Disqualified From Iran’s 2017 Councils Elections”, Center for Human Rights in Iran, https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2017/05/, 13 Haziran 2017.
  • “Once again self-immolation of two Yarasani followers in Kermanshah”, Yarsan Democratic Organization, 16 Nisan 2017.
  • “Regime Blocks Reconstruction of Ahl-e Haqq’s Shrine”, Kurdistan Press Agency, 12 Aralık 2011.
  • “Religious Minority in Iran Asks Khamenei for Constitutional Protection”, Center for Human Rights in Iran, 17 Haziran 2016.
  • Sharifi, Amir. “Iran’s War Against its Religious Minorities”, Rudaw, 30 Haziran 2013.
  • “Some of Yarsan followers victims due to discriminatory system of the Islamic regime of Iran”, Yarsan Democratic Organization, 17 Nisan 2017.
  • Taşkıran, Mehmet Sait. “İran: Gorani Kürtleri, Pirler’in Düğünü”, Atlas, Mart 2013, Sayı: 240, http://www.atlasdergisi.com/kesfet/kultur/pirlerin-dugunu.html, 12 Haziran 2017.
  • “Two Iranian Yarsanis Set Themselves on Fire in Protest of Discrimination”, BasNews, 17 Nisan 2017.
  • “UN General Assembly: Situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran”, United Nations, 27 Ağustos 2014.
  • “Yok edilmek istenen inanç ve kültür: Ehl-i Hak”, Fenomen: Felsefe Dünyası, http://www.fenomen.org/dinler-mezhepler/, 20 Eylül 2017.
  • “6 Yarsan followers arrested in Hamedan”, Human Rights Activists News Agency, 4 Ağustos 2014.

Details

Subjects Religious Studies
Journal Section Articles
Authors

İsmail Numan TELCİ

Publication Date December 30, 2017
Submission Date September 25, 2017
Acceptance Date December 17, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017Volume: 10 Issue: 2

Cite

ISNAD TELCİ, İsmail Numan. “Bir Etno-Dini İnanış Olarak İran’daki Yarsan İnancı: Tarihi, Esasları Ve Bugünkü Durumu”. e-Makalat Mezhep Araştırmaları Dergisi 10/2 (December 2017), 435-454. https://doi.org/10.18403/emakalat.339754.

Cited By

İRAN’DA EHL-İ HAKLARIN KUTSAL MEKÂNLARI
Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi
https://doi.org/10.60163/hbv.107.004

Kakais with Religious Beliefs and Rituals
International Journal of Kurdish Studies
Muhammed TEZOKUR
https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.755967

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